The history of embroidery

We can say that embroidery was born with the advent of the 1st stitch, when primitive people began to make their own clothes from animal skins. The first materials for embroidery steel core and animal hair, much later people started to use strands of hemp, flax, cotton, wool, silk, precious stones, pearls, beads, beads, seashells, coins, etc. However, at all times, embroidery was associated with nature, work and life of people. It reflects their views and artistic tastes, which is why each nation has developed its own national characteristics, skill.

First used stone and bone awl. Then people learned to make bronze and steel needles, which helped the improvement of embroidery and the invention of new methods of embroidery.

Generally as a form of needlework embroidery appeared in the East. So, the most ancient works which have reached our times, were sown in Ancient China and date back to VI—V centuries BC They are made with Golden and silver threads and a hair on silk fabrics. In those days the finest Chinese embroidery had a great influence on the embroidery of Japan.

In the next stage of history it should be noted the art of embroidery in Iran and Ancient India with characteristic floral patterns, images of animals and genre scenes. Asian embroidery was in Byzantium and the countries of ancient Europe. Thus, the Greeks attributed the invention of embroidery of the goddess Athena Pallada.

There is a legend about Arachne, the daughter of Dyer, who studied the goddess to weave and embroider. He felt that his skill is similar to the goddess, and called her to a race. The girl won, doing a great job depicting the adventures of the gods. Minerva got angry and threw her Shuttle, whereupon Arachne turned into a spider.

In the Odyssey Homer mentions embroidered cloak of Ulysses, which was decorated with gold embroidery. The poet also mentions the rich embroideries, brought by Paris to Troy from Sidon and tyre. In the 3rd song of "Iliad" described Helen embroidering on white fabric the story of the battle between Greeks and Trojans.

A great impetus the development of embroidery in Greece has received during the campaigns of Alexander the great to Asia. The fact that Greeks have borrowed a lot in this art from the Persians. Not less remarkable seemed to them and the richly embroidered Indian fabrics. After defeating Darius, Alexander the great took his tent, adorned with beautiful embroidery. Then he ordered a cloak at masters-cipriota.

When you stitch you can't lock the thread by tying knots. You simply make a few stitches in one place, and then cover it with embroidery.

In Ancient Israel the art of embroidery has also been much developed. Rich and intricate embroidery trimmed priests ' clothes, fine embroidered patterns and decorated with many items of the Church. The Jews, like the Assyrians, took over the art of embroidery from Egypt, where the embroidery was quite common, as evidenced by preserved embroidered clothing of the mummies of the pharaohs and images on sarcophagi and monuments.

The first fabric and the embroidery were made of wool. Later, the Egyptians discovered properties of flax and hemp and steel manufacture of these fabrics, which were much thinner, whiter and more refined wool.

Be the first to embroider with gold were the Phrygians, and later the Romans, learned about this craft through a king of Pergamon Attalo (that's why the first goldwork called talinskii).

The First Tarquin was the 1st not only by birth, but among those who appeared in Rome in magnificent clothes, embroidered with gold. Love the rich embroidery spread quickly through Rome and Greece and took monstrous proportions. Rulers often attempted to prohibit or to restrain this insatiable luxury, but no result is not given.

Then China started silk production, where shortly before Christmas he went to Persia, India, Egypt and the East. The West learned this the thinnest material yet later. So, Rome saw the silk in the times of Julius Caesar. Then this fabric was very expensive and was considered a great rarity, and the Chinese are not exported silkworms out of the country.

It should be noted that during the Byzantine kings the art of silk embroidery threads has reached a high level of skill. It was decorated with clothes, saddles, horse harness; the Hermitage cloth with embroidery, which dates from the III century ad In Bavaria there is a Byzantine embroidery, which is found on the tomb of the Bishop of Bamberg Humbert, who died in 1062 g. it depicts the Emperor Constantine on horseback on a white horse, and he is worshiped by 2 women, in whose hands the war helmet and a Laurel wreath. One of them symbolizes the West and the other East.

Embroidery of the Byzantine Empire greatly influenced the development of this art in the West in the middle ages. Since the XIII century, England became a famous embroidery of gold, silk and silver. It should be noted that the country is one of the first was known for its magnificent embroideries. For example, the abbess of the monastery of St. etheldreda in VII. gave the Bishop Kucera rich embroidery, while Alfred the Great was the banner that Danish princesses were embroidered Raven.

The main motives for the embroidery was floral designs, flowers and leaves. The Museum in Bayeux is a big and superbly executed work of Matilda, wife of William the Conqueror, which depicts episodes of the conquest of England the Norman Duke.

In the XVI century the art of embroidery spread rapidly in France, thanks to the relations of this country with Greece, but the first subjects of the embroideries was only a picture from the Holy Scriptures.

From France and England the embroidery gradually spread to other Western countries. For example, the wife of the king of Hungary St. Stephen's, Gizella, near his Palace staged workshops for embroidery and weaving. It is here that the wizard invented Hungarian seam, which is characterized in that the entire background of embroidering zigzags.

Two monks and pilgrim in his staff brought to the Emperor Justinian from China a few larvae of silkworm. After that silk production began to spread across the Byzantine Empire, and then around the world.

Trade relations of the Italian cities with the peoples of Asia has led to the fact that among the Europeans started the fashion for rich decoration characteristic of the culture of the East. Especially famous in those days Milan, Buzuluk, Genoese, Venetian embroidery.

In the Renaissance, embroidery along with other types of art reached perfection. Many of the artists did sketches for the embroideries, were among them, even Raphael.

The Spaniards strongly imitated the Italians, and over time their craftsmanship has reached a high degree of perfection. In many museums of the world preserved embroidery of those times that confirm this. For example, in the Cluny Museum in France houses the embroidered picture depicting Adam and eve. Equally famous is the Church lectern with exquisite embroidery, which Charles V gave the monastery of St. Justus, where he spent his last years of life.

It should be noted that in almost all countries embroidered on cloth or silk with silk, wool, gold and silver threads, and only in Saxony, embroidered in white thread on the white fabrics. Currently, this form of embroidery spread all over the world.

Many famous women of the West were skilled embroiderers. For example, Catherine de Medici and her daughter and their cousins had always embroidered in leisure hours. Mary Stuart and Madame de Maintenon loved to sew and always took his work with him. The latter founded a girls ' school, which introduced the embroidery is a separate subject. Marie Antoinette also spent a lot of time for needlework, often embroidering a small seam on the canvas.

The first patterns for embroidery wizard passed from hand to hand and copied it themselves, which often led to more difficulties. After the printing press was invented, patterns are collected and published in separate books. The first such collection published Peter of quinte in Cologne in 1527

To create new sketches for embroidery draughtsmen often turned to nature, trying to learn from her all the colors and forms of flowers and plants. With this purpose, Jean Robin created a special garden in which he bred many rare plants from other countries. His idea has become quite popular, and Henry IV bought it the flower garden, after which he became known as "the Royal garden" and was available to everyone.

The first master of the embroidered hooks. Skein was placed under the hoops and loops dragged from the wrong side on the front with a hook.

Gradually in many Western countries (France, Germany, England, Sweden, Denmark, Norway) and embroidery were used in folk costumes, to decorate household items. Most of embroidered white satin, see-through surface with geometric and floral ornaments. In the Scandinavian countries also did embroidery with colored wool and gold.

Russia embroidery appeared long ago; it was decorated with clothes, household items, harness horses, shoes, home. So, in Putyrskij mounds in the Altai were found woven rugs; embroidered and applique made of leather, felt, beads, beads, gold plaques buckets, saddles, shoes, clothes, noble Scythians. These objects date back to III—I centuries BC In the European part of the country during excavations of burial mounds were also found clothing remnants of the Scythians and Sarmatians, adorned with embroidery of gold and silver, wool and silk.

In Russia in the old days embroidery was owned by all women, as it was associated with ancient rites and customs of the Russian people. Already 7-8-year-old girl sat down to sew and embroider, preparing their dowry. 16 years every girl had to have embroidered everyday and festive clothes, valances, tablecloths, towels. And all this she had enough for a few years of marriage. In addition, it was necessary to sew and embroider towels for gifts to the bride at the wedding his new relatives and the guests of honor. Before the wedding was arranged an exhibition of manufactured products, so that everyone can judge the skill of a girl.

Clothes in Russia made of linen, and it was a very laborious and lengthy process. First spun linen thread or tow, and then wove the canvas. Depending on the thickness of the tow cloth was thick or thin. Then the canvas was bleached in the snow on a Sunny winter day. Sheep wool made yarn and wove wool from her paintings. In addition, the wool did felt fabric and felted products.

Her entire wardrobe: sundresses, shirts, scarves, skirts, outerwear, shoes were decorated with embroidery, ribbons, lace. Linen, towels, valances, tablecloths and curtains also fitted with embroidery, patterns for which were invented independently. It was floral designs, flowers, animals, people.

Many drawings attached magical significance, so some embroidered things were considered talismans that protected the house, people and animals from different troubles and diseases. For example, the crosses were protecting the person from evil; the tree symbolizing a long life, and the relationship of everything on earth; the flower is considered a symbol of beauty and purity, while red flower — a symbol of earthly love. The star was a sign of the heavenly fire and had to be depicted with straight or triangular rays. The circles symbolized motherhood, fertility and abundance. Also the range is considered a sign of the feminine in nature. Squares signified of farmers and the fertility of the fields, spiral wisdom and knowledge. Wavy lines — water marks, wave and beginning of life, triangles — person. No less symbolic importance, and the color pattern.

When embroidering every woman was guided by certain rules and traditions. It was believed that embroidery people tried to protect the most vulnerable from evil spells and disease. So decorated the front and the back of his shirt, and a pinafore, collar, sides, neck, oblique placket, shoulders, cuffs. So, embroidery at hem, sleeves and shoulders gave strength and dexterity hands.

Over time, the value addition embroidery were forgotten, leaving only tradition to decorate your clothes embroidered patterns.

In the countryside embroidery women worked more often in winter, when there was no work in field, forest, garden. They worked by the light of a torch, so it is usually embroidered on white cloth with white thread. With the old embroidery was done "by vyderga", i.e. from the canvas and pulled out yarn and cloth received another invoice, which is subsequently filled embroidered patterns.

At that time there were no books, special schools there was very little, so the masters taught each other; and since all villages were separated, then in each locality embroidery, as well as other types of folk art had its own characteristics. Over time, the local context was expanded and the master adopted the experience of their neighbors, enriching and improving their own patterns. Thus created embroidery with local features. Even now embroidery Voronezh masters differs from embroidery pskovitianka.

There are many different techniques of embroidery: Vladimir Veresov, Mstiora expanse of white, Oryol list, Branca, Kaluga color to Previti, crestech-Valdai stitching, lace Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl line with rim and many others.

Color yarn for embroidery was monotonous. The fact is that previously used only vegetable dyes, whose number is very limited. That is why the embroidery of the southern regions are richer in colour than the embroidery of the Northern regions and districts.

The old Russian seams are painted, cross, set, calculating surface, small white line, "goat". A little later embroiderers invented a color to Previti, cutouts, Krestetsky line, lace, tambour embroidery, white and colored surface.

Special rare woven cloth embroidered with counting stitches. What is the fabric of superimposed single color yarn on account of its filaments and filled the separate parts of geometric figures, thus generating rhythmic patterns. Such counting is called the embroidery stitch.

In addition, the canvas was embroidered with patterns of geometric shapes, seam "forward needle", calling this technique as a set, or "bad sewing", one of which is Orlovsky spies.

Some of the oldest in Russia — it is cross stitch and polylactam. Stitch began to embroider a little later. On thick unbleached canvas red yarn with a small amount of green, yellow and blue thread embroidered in the shapes of animals, birds, fish, people, floral ornament. Call this technique verhovnoi as surface lay only on the front side, and inside out doing only small stitches. She has another name — Vladimir smooth surface, as it appeared in the Vladimir region.

In the same area in the village of Mstera masters created 1 kind of surface —Mstiora, white surface. It is performed on thin tissue thin white threads. Currently also embroider on colored fabric, but certainly a tonal thread. The technique of this embroidery includes bilateral surface, the surface with a flooring, a back surface, outer surface, cuts and punctures, thin patch of mesh, simple stitches, knots, and a scattering of banners (one of the most difficult techniques).

All Russian folk embroidery can be divided into 2 groups: Central and Northern. To the latter group belong embroidery Novgorod, Arkhangelsk, Pskov, Vologda, Ivanovo, Kalinin, Gorki, Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Vladimir areas. The Srednerussky are the Kaluga, Ryazan, Tula, Orel, Smolensk, Tambov, Penza and Voronezh regions.

Most of the embroidery used set and seam-painting. In some areas, embroidered plain cross in red on a white canvas. Of patterns was dominated by floral motifs. Complex drawings depicted contour and in one color.

Embroidery Central Russia was very different from the North, as masters often chose geometric patterns with rhombus shape of the comb and 2 tabs on each corner. The work itself was multicolored and the background is often used as an ornament. The most common techniques was to color Previti, the accounting surface, set "goat" painting, "pigtail", of heirloom.

Golden embroidery came to Russia with the Christian faith. Princess Anna Janka, sister of Vladimir Monomakh, was opened at St. Andrew monastery in Kiev, one of the first embroidery schools. In her young girls were taught embroidery in silk, gold and silver threads. Craftswomen created gorgeous floral designs on clothing, decorated with pearls and precious stones.

Home needlework gradually became transformed into a craft: embroidery began to sell at the fairs. In the XVIII century there were shops where you could order the embroidery, and for many skilled quilters embroidery became a profession. In addition, we organized a school to train embroidery. In many areas of the country formed the centres of embroidery art, and each — with its own artistic features.

Many items of clothing and way of life, embroidered, preserved to our days. They can be seen in the Historical Museum, the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, the Museum of applied arts.

Gradually, the embroidery was divided into folk and applied art. The latter was associated with the nobility. It should be noted that Europeanization noble life has greatly influenced this type of craft, thanks to which began to develop other techniques of embroidery, chenille, silver, shadow stitch, beads.

All the nobles decorated their costumes with gold, silver, beads, bugle beads, precious stones, white surface. In addition, embroidery is used for interior decoration, decorating it carpets, upholstery, curtains, panels, bedding. Embroidered and small household items and accessories: handbags, capes, shawls, wallets, toiletries.

Embroidered not only the peasant — women of all strata of the population was engaged in embroidery.

Every girl in boarding houses, institutions, orphanages were taught to sew and sew. Needlework has always been a compulsory subject in all educational institutions. For many poor girls embroidery became a profession.

It should be noted that in all the republics of the former Soviet Union embroidery traditionally decorated folk costumes. For example, in Ukraine the national tradition of embroidery is preserved to this day, as in Russia; each region, Polissia, Podillia, Slobozhanshchyna, the Carpathians, the Carpathians, Central naddniprianschyna she has its local characteristics and differences. However, all Ukrainian technique combines strict floral pattern in white and white or red and white. Embroidery also decorated the clothing (sleeves, collar, bodice, cuffs, hem), hats and hand kerchiefs, tablecloths, curtains, towels (towels). Often used free and counting the surface, half-cross and the cross of white and colored openwork, nizi.

In Belarus, the practice of heirloom sewing by Assembly, cutting. Typical for this country juicy bright patterns, executed in red and white.

In embroideries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania is dominated by floral and geometric patterns, executed in different techniques: stitching, polylactam free and counting stitch, using hemstitch, vestibule, "goats", strokewise seams.

Embroidery of peoples of the Caucasus is very elegant and rich. In Georgia prevalent gold embroidery, wool, silk. Thus adorned shirts, outerwear, belts, scarves, bibs, rugs, pillows, etc. the Masters use and dozens of different stitches in floral and geometric ornaments: stitch, half-cross, knots, surface, stalked and chain stitches, applique.

Armenian master usually embroidered with geometric or stylized floral patterns, applying technology on a free outline and on account of threads. In their work they use surface pletenetsky seam, hemstitch and other decorative stitches.

In Azerbaijan as a basis take the red cloth, black velvet, satin, sateen. Embroider often various vegetative and floral patterns in silk thread chain stitch, counting white and free colored embroidery, gold embroidery. Embroidery decorated with pillows, rugs, bedspreads, tablecloths, purses, vests, shirts and other products.

Embroidery of Central Asia have a long history, starting with the III—VI centuries a Characteristic feature is the circle — symbol of the sun, inside of which embroider the flower petals, leaves, beans. The peoples of Central Asia never portrayed in his works, human and animal, as prohibited by the Muslim religion.

In Tajikistan, buttonhole, chain stitch, glade-tion, the cross-stitches decorate the curtains, suzani, tea bags, combs, mirrors, panels, cap, belt men's handkerchiefs. Uzbeks in embroidery use surface prikra, suture chain, gold embroidery, half-cross, applique, beadwork, cross. In Turkmenistan more common surface prikra, chains, stalk stitch.

In Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan embroider on felt, leather, cloth, silk and velvet gladeville and chain stitches. Masters often depict figures of animals and humans, but the floral patterns found in their works are very rare.

The name "chain stitch" comes from the technique of embroidery on fabric, stretched on a Hoop like a tambourine.

In the XIX century in France appeared 1st embroidery machine; unfortunately, the name of its inventor remained unknown; however, as this machine is also unknown. In 1825, 4 years later, the French inventor barthélemy T. Monnier de Umpleby invented another embroidery machine, but it was uncomfortable to use. But constructed in 1854 machine Heilman made a revolution in the manufacture of embroidery. Since that time it has undergone minor changes, but the idea and the main mechanisms remain the same.

However, many quilters still prefer hand embroidery, as it is much more expressive and hudozestvennie, and in addition, and more durable machine.

Modern mistresses are exploring the traditions and experience of masters of past centuries, and on this basis create new products made in lighter equipment and meet modern requirements. Currently, embroidery is used for decorating women's and children's clothing, interior items (napkins, curtains, tablecloths, cushion covers for cushions, panels), towels, bags, purses, etc.

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