Embroidery Is a type of decorative art, the pattern and the image in which are created with a needle by hand or on embroidery machines cotton, linen, silk and woolen threads. Also use beads, pearls, hair, sequins, coins, gems, etc.
Embroidery is used to decorate household items (pillows, napkins, bedspreads, tacks, curtains, etc.), clothing, paintings and panels. Masters of embroidery work with a variety of fabrics: from dense and rough, such as canvas, cloth or leather, and to the finest — muslin, Batiste, tulle, gas.
Embroidery can be flat, convex, openwork, mesh, dense and carpet. It's easy to enhance the beauty of fabric: a refined iridescence of silk, rich glow of velvet, the warm dullness and fluffiness of wool, the noble shimmer of linen. Often when creating a pattern of embroidery using a picture of the fabric.
There are 4 techniques in embroidery:
- based on thread count;
- from translated image;
Embroidery based on thread count, or counting embroidery, used in some of its types: counting surface, cross stitch, laying threads in a straight line, simple and complex earrings.
Embroidery on the translated pattern includes a smooth surface, Welt surface, embroidery on the tulle. Thus on a thin fabric put drawing and fill it with densely lying stitches, and in this case the embroidery can be relief or flat.
The vestibule is a chain stitch embroidery. To perform it, you can use a conventional sewing needle or embroider a special curve needle.
Applique is the imposition of pieces of fabric on the base, which is often used tulle.
In addition, you can embroider not only manually, but also on the sewing machine. There are special embroidery machines that are used in their work by professional embroiderers. It should be noted that modern sewing machines also have the function of embroidery. They just need to be set up on it according to the instructions supplied with the sewing machine.
There Are several types of embroidery: cross stitch, ribbons, satin stitch, gold, beads, Richelieu, applique, izonit. Our book is devoted to embroidery.
This type of needlework is widespread around the world. Since ancient times, women of all classes embroidered satin stitch, making a gorgeous tapestries, decorated with embroidered tablecloths, napkins, handbags, purses, clothing, upholstery, curtains, etc. In the dowry of every girl necessarily included tablecloths, embroidered stitch.
Once every girl knew how to embroider, and many brought their art to such an extent that performed fine embroidery commissioned by rich people. It is not surprising that then the clothes of rich men and women were necessarily decorated with beautiful embroidery using gold and silver threads, pearls, precious stones.
For embroidery stitch must have great patience and of course hard work. In addition, each craftswoman puts a piece of her own soul into her works, and therefore many motifs embroidered with love carry certain information and can become a real talisman.
In the modern world, satin stitch embroidery is experiencing its rebirth. It has become popular again, and it is used to decorate interior items, clothing, various accessories, etc.
Embroidery stitch is a type of embroidery in which stitches fill the fabric completely, so when creating embroidered paintings, panels, clothing and linen can be most harmoniously used threads of different types: floss, wool, silk, linen. Embroidery is available on almost any fabric. Threads for a smooth surface it is better to choose weakly twisted, soft as such will be better to lie down in stitches.
There Are several types of surface: white and color, free and applied in a row threads on the contour of the picture. The pattern of the surface can be one-sided and two-sided.
Many different stitches are used in embroidery, such as "forward needle", "back needle", tambour and stalk seams, "eight", straight and oblique.
Satin stitch embroidery in different parts of the country has its own characteristics, and each Of them has its own name. For example, in the Gorky region perform "Gorky type", in the village of crosses of the Novgorod region made "krestetskaya line" in the city of Alexandrov-ke Kaluga region embroider "Alexander colored surface", and in Ryazan — "Ryazan embroidery". Worldwide known "Poltava expanse".
In the village of Tarusa often used "color to Pereval", whose title came from the main reception — previte colored threads. This is one of the most difficult and time-consuming types of sewing on the grid, which is performed with colored threads.
Color interweaving is also embroidered in Ryazan, Smolensk, Kaluga, Tula and Tver regions. The color of the embroidery plays a huge role. For example, white symbolizes the sky and light, red is associated with fire and ideas about something beautiful, beautiful. These colors are the main color in Previti. Also, the embroidery is supplemented with green, yellow and blue colors.
Floral, geometric and animal ornaments are used in the color interweaving to decorate napkins, tablecloths, towels, paths, pillowcases, women's clothing. Along with colour pereview use and counting stitches, such as set painting, surface.
Pereiti often performed on plucked the grid, i.e., the fabric after the calculation of the cell pull the threads to make a grid, which is then filled with pattern. If it is not wrapped around, then this embroidery is called a fabric. This technique is similar to a darning — the pattern turns out to be dense and of one texture.
Openwork drawings should be performed on a canvas of medium thickness, but rough or very thin fabrics for this type of embroidery are not suitable.
There are different versions of the fabric: white, monochrome, color, light, dense and mesh. It can also be done with the selection of the contour of a different color. After the pattern is filled stranu, the rest of the mesh wrap on the diagonal, using thread of the same thickness as that of the fabric base. At the same time, different types of wrapping are used in different areas. For example, in the Vologda and Olonets obviuse mesh perform rows horizontally and vertically.
Separate line should highlight gold embroidery. In my town they call embroidery with metal threads. Previously, such a drawn thread was made of thin gold or silver wire. Later, instead of the dragged thread began to make a twisted thread, i.e., metallic thread cheat linen or silk.
Many skilled workers embroider gold threads not only on fabric, but also on skin. Often such embroidery is performed on the flooring, which gives the embroidery a bulge and relief, using as it threads, cardboard, paper, leather.
various seams are also used in gold embroidery: forged, cast, attached, wavy, on a rope, a basket. In addition, to make the seams of the grids and lattices. At the same time, the gold thread runs only from the front side, and the cotton thread is visible from the wrong side. Gold embroidery can only be done on the Hoop.
More often gold embroidery is used for decoration of Church objects.