The study of Russian folk embroidery in school clubs
Russian folk embroidery as a part of folk art is a complete sign system graphic visual symbols, which carries a huge number of social, ethnic, ideological and educational information. Ornament and color, used by embroiderers to decorate clothing, solving decorative problems, clearly Express the worldview of a people, its spiritual and moral qualities. That is why the disclosing of a figurative language is ornamental compositions is very important methodical technique of teaching of decorative art, helping, in addition to the formation of adolescents the necessary craft skills, to reveal the emotional responsiveness of students to folk art, develop their aesthetic perception and moral quality.
A great advantage in the study of folk art in children and adolescents has a system of additional education (art schools, art, circles crafts, etc.), the main content of which is practice-oriented activity of students. the basic pedagogic unit of further education in the arts is a creative practice, organized by the teachers and pupils, which extends their experience in a constructive, creative, morally oriented behavior in culture and art. In this pedagogical process the Teens go off on their own in a situation of creative search, acquire knowledge from interaction with the objects of labor, of nature, cultural monuments, etc.
The value of additional education is that it enhances the variable component of the General education and helping the younger generation, young people in professional self-determination, contributes to the realization of their forces, knowledge acquired in the core component in school. In additional education the young person understands the main thing: looking for the meaning of life and the opportunity to "be themselves". World folk art is a familiar space, a real breeding ground. A philosophical postulate that "being determines consciousness" is inevitable in practice.
In this regard further education is undoubtedly the first step of professional education in the sphere of culture and art, on the other - is a type of educational institution, whose activities are focused on the development of aldehydogenic competencies, creative abilities, social and professional self-determination of children and youth.
To address this important pedagogical tasks of the teacher in the system of additional education has a unique opportunity to use and vary the different learning forms, such as practical training, excursion, lecture, seminar, meeting with folk artist the art of weaving. These forms of a properly organized system of lessons have a powerful synergistic teaching and educational effect.
It should be noted that at each new age stage in the study of decorative art, as in the main school at the lessons of fine arts, and in the system of additional education, the teacher should use the technique of presentation, appropriate to the age peculiarities of students. It is necessary to observe the continuity of these stages is aided by the use in the classroom arts and crafts methods, perspectives and retrospectives that allow you to run forward and repeatedly go back to the familiar images, motifs, themes of folk art at another meaningful level.
It is assumed that in the younger (grades 1-4) and middle (4-7 grades) school age students have already acquired the notion that the art of embroidery has a long history and is associated with age-old customs and ceremonies of the Russian peasantry. The teacher undoubtedly told them about that girl seven or eight years of age began to prepare their dowry, and to fifteen or sixteen years had to have a festive and everyday clothing, table cloths, valances, towels, which should be enough for a few years. Young masters prepared towels for gifts at the wedding the relatives of the groom and honored guests. Before the wedding was arranged exhibition of products and their number and quality were judged on the skill and diligence of the bride. In practical classes in art embroidery, the children had the opportunity to see how using a needle and various threads Russian women turned ordinary fabric into a work of art. Those are the basic knowledge and skills required to support the teacher in planning group work with teenagers 710 grades.
In the curriculum of high school students arts and crafts-at this stage, in our view, be appropriate to include a more detailed study of the peculiarities of the Russian national costume and symbolic imagery in its decor, with details of their semantic value associated with its standard functions, the system of traditional beliefs, rites. the symbolism of various embroidery patterns from ancient times had a deep meaning. Illustrative material (slide show, photos, albums), and also visit the folk art Museum will help students of this age to understand the internal logic of patterns and techniques of Russian embroidery.
During the lecture the teacher will tell them that each region and sometimes the district had its own, only here the common techniques of embroidery, its motifs, colours. with the expansion of relations between various areas of local features enrich each other. From generation to generation, perfected and improved designs and colors, embroidery patterns created with distinctive national and regional, local features. specific examples of ornaments it is necessary to show that the Russian peasant embroidery are divided into two main groups: the Northern and Central Russian. To the North are the work of Arkhangelsk, Novgorod, Pskov, Vologda, and Kalinin, Ivanovo, Gorky, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Vladimir; Central Russian Kaluga, Tula, Ryazan, Smolensk, Orel, Penza, Tambov and Voronezh regions.
in the introductory classes need to analyze with students what Russian embroidery embroidery different from other peoples. Important role it plays in geometric patterns and geometrical shapes of plants and animals: the diamonds, the motives of the female figure, bird, tree, or flowering Bush, and the animal with a raised paw. Diamond shaped, circle, rosette depicted the sun is a symbol of warmth, of life; a female figure and flowering tree was a symbol of fertility, the bird symbolized the coming of spring. The composition of the patterns, their composition, the colors varied depending on who designed the items - a man or a woman.
In the course of practical exercises in the course of the year pupils should learn the features of the shape cut Russian ethnic clothing and related embroidery. They need to understand that the location of the pattern and techniques of embroidery was organically linked with the brim of clothes that were made from straight pieces of fabric. The stitches were executed on account of thread and is called countable. They decorated oplaca, the ends of the sleeves, the cut on the chest, the hem of the apron, the bottom of the dress, and also were located along the connecting joints. Embroidery "free" on the drawn contour, dominated by the patterns of vegetative character. To the ancient Russian seams are stitch-painted or half-cross, kit, cross, counting the surface, "goat", small white line. Later came the cut, color to Previti, kresttsy stitching, lace, tambour embroidery, white and colored surface. The most common techniques in North embroidery: cross, painted, cut, white stitching, through sewing, performed on the grid, white and colored surface.
North subject compositions was carried out most often the seams and painting the set. In some areas of the Russian North the patterns on the aprons, hems of shirts and towels embroidered with a cross, usually one color: red and white or white-on-red canvas. In the patterns of fine motives prevailed over geometric. Complex compositions were passed the silhouette, contour, in one color, one receiving. Here along with women's costume and small household things and was embroidered decorative wares: towels, valances, etc.
Teens at the living experience need to make sure that peasant embroidery Central Russia was significantly different from the North. In the pattern dominated by geometric shapes with the shape of the comb with diamond shape "markers", that is with two tabs on each corner bearing the name "Burr". Embroidery Central Russia was an extraordinary variety of patterns and colours. In addition, as will be celebrated by students in product design present patterned weaving, stripe ribbon, red cloth, color fabric and lace and braid.
In the southern regions of embroidery was used mainly to decorate clothing and towels. One of the most interesting and popular embroideries of Central strip is colored to Pereval Smolensk, Tula, Kaluga regions. Previti meet seams: set painting, "braid", "goat", the cross, the accounting surface, of heirloom.
The acquired knowledge must be consolidated in practical sessions in which the members of the club will be able to self-learn embroidery first on the proposed teacher stencils, and then independently developed and patterns are drawn using traditional folk ornaments. undoubtedly, in order that a pupil could discover creativity on the basis of folk art, it is necessary to give an understanding of the symbolic images of the decor-embroidery, learn to "decode" their meanings.
As will be known to the students, the artistic language of Russian embroidery ornaments diverse: it is characterized by continuous variability, its composition and composition for many centuries, changed and reworked. The original semantics of complex ancient subjects embroidery has gradually been forgotten by people that it was noted in 60-70-ies of the last century, but with complete clarity shown by studies of the twentieth century. The ornament peculiar to the unceasing mutability, his motives during the long life recycled. However, the archaic stories of the facial embroidery of a later time, extant in a variety of options, allow us to trace the stability of specific traits, to see them repeated, "common places".
These sustainable elements are the images of the women, wood, riders, surrounded by birds, beasts, presented in a certain interpretation, has a number of features that allows them to see archaic layer in the embroidery. Features continuously repeated in a variety of embroidery allow you to believe the designs are not just a figment of the imagination of embroiderers, and deeply traditional. They did not reflect everyday scenes (although over time some have acquired genre character), and was associated in its basis with ancient mythological notions.
Will greatly help students to understand the original semantics of the subjects of the embroidery method of obtaining data on teacher beliefs, customs, folklore of the Russian village of XVIII-early XX century, as well as a vivid historical evidence and ancient iconographic monuments. It is very important to achieve the effect not so much by itself, used by the leader of the group of technical tools (slidetop, projector, computer), but his ability to pick up on time with the right arguments, clearly and vividly to represent historical facts, to update the conversation.
Here's how, for example, we have built the analysis of the semantics embroidery wedding towel Kaluga region and the Smolensk land in one of the classes with high school students.
In the process of studying slides, the students were asked to compare different samples and make conclusions about that all the submitted samples are all of a complex composition are interrelated. Subordination of characters reflects their appeal to the Central anthropomorphic, in most cases, the female figure (or wood), which, as it reveals to others a blessing, and sometimes expresses the aspiration up to some kind of higher creature. Exaggerated hands, their position also Express relationships of the characters.
In this case, the teacher noted that the submission of the Russian people hand is a mighty weapon that can transform their environment and to protect the person from misfortunes. The image of hands was given in the archaic embroidery special value. Hands in understanding people's umelitsy positively influenced the reality, but also protected from adversity. Exaggerated hands, however, as if his request to the Central character or to a higher being. To create the aesthetic associations and consolidation of the concepts, examples were given from other sources, in particular photographs of the stones with handprints discovered in the Novgorod region, as well as images of the hand in the ancient art of the Caucasus, Siberia. we also noted that the Russian image of a hand can also be found in wooden sculpture, embroidery, ceremonial wedding cookies (pie), which the bride's mother baked for the family of the groom. This cookie was the daughter's wish to live happily in a new family.
Together with the teacher the students came to this lesson, to the conclusion that geometric signs play an important role in the composition of the towels, carry great meaning. For understanding this was given to the archaeological examples from the ancient times, traces of the ancient value of the rhombic shapes as symbols of fertility. After studying the illustrations of the album, the teacher asked the boys the discussion by assuming that in Russian embroidery in some cases, the diamond had the same value.
The discussion sounded very interesting and logical thoughts, confirming that the creative imagination of the pupils plays an active role in the learning process. for example, one girl made the following observation: "Judging by the location of the diamond in various compositions, it could mean the earth, the plant and the woman at the same time". There have been predictions that are confirmed historical material, accommodation in a Russian embroidery near diamond cross, diamond pattern and rosettes, perhaps not coincidentally. In the past, this combination was associated with the symbolism of the connection of male and female principles.
A big role in the Russian rituals of the agricultural cycle played horse. There was the game action "filly", "filly led" on Shrove Tuesday and later. Known custom of regenia horse at Christmas: the horse was the first mask among other animalistic images of Christmas merrymaking
Summarizing the discussion, we can say that the embroidery samples, preserved most fully the beliefs and rites of the ancient calendar, clearly expressed the subordination of all the characters the Central figure, which depends on the location of other figures. She protects them, protects benefits and gives the bird as a symbol of heat and light - or a plant.
Continuing the study of the semantics of the ornament, the teacher explains that the earth, in the view of Russian peasants, had anthropomorphic traits. The expression "nurse-the mother land of cheese", a reference to her as being spiritual, talking about it. The peasants celebrated the day of the birthday of the earth when it was impossible to disturb (plow, dig, etc.). Violating this prohibition is brought on the trouble. Other practices also testify to the veneration of the earth, help its diseases. The term "cheese" points to its inextricable link with water. It is connected with vegetation: grass, flowers, bushes and trees were called "hair" of the earth. More jagged or smooth wavy line embroidery was often a symbol of water. It floating rook-birds. Sometimes this line runs below the line representing the ground, the soil in which are growing bushes, grass, are birds and animals.
From a detailed account with examples students make conclusions about what the symbolism of the ornamental compositions, which are full of roots, seeds and plants in connection with the ideogram of water, graphically expressed the idea, which is embedded in the expression "mother earth". The reflection of this image can be found in embroidery: a female figure with a bird in his raised hands combined with a tree growing inside of it, and water - in the lower tier embroidery (dress woman) included the image of water in the form of a jagged line.
The peasant mistress, whose life was limited to family and business interests, was the Keeper of ancient ideas and images, reflected in women's art - embroidery. In the Central female character of the ornament is studied in the embroidery, of course, portrayed the deity, in which was embodied the ancient ideas about the earth giving birth and about a woman procreate.
Build such classes, based on visual range and materials from different historical sources allow students to understand that the Russian embroidery ornament has retained to our time the elements of the ancient people's worldview. In the decoration of towels the most striking ornamental manifested the originality of folk embroidery. They were sewn not only the same patterns as on people's clothing, but also complex compositions with ancient symbols. In the XIX - early XX centuries. skilled embroiderers not always was able exactly to explain it, but they remembered the kindness of the ancient patterns.
Decoding figurative language patterns, students not only acquire the necessary skill to build ornamental compositions and the creative processing of the subjects of the Russian traditional embroidery, but also penetrate deep into the spiritual world of our ancestors, suffer the moral and aesthetic essence that was the basis of their life.