During the development of the decor, utilitarian and decorative wares primarily takes into account its estimated form, the proportions of the individual parts. Analyzing the design of the box, tray or other products, the master determines which planes are the main product and which are secondary, what planes will accommodate the dominant elements of the whole composition, and where it is only to emphasize the shape. Decor should not interfere with the operation of the product, it needs to be clearly visible and seamlessly integrated into its shape. As a rule, on products of utilitarian and decorative nature of the core of the composition placed on the planes with the highest review and having the largest area. Decorative trays such plane is the bottom, caskets and trunks — plane cover. Chests in height compared with the height of the box, have a decor similar to the cover, on the front vertical surface. Side surface and the legs of the boxes, pen trays have at least designed a decor that supports composition of main surfaces and generally completes the composition of the decor product. Little developed the decoration of these surfaces is due to many reasons: first, their small area, and secondly, the invisibility of their way, in the third — the surfaces most often during operation, in contact with the owner and the decoration on them can be eventually damaged.
The most widespread of utilitarian and decorative items, decorated with applique, got caskets and chests (chests). The boxes have a small height in comparison with width and depth, flat or rounded lid. The form boxes are very diverse. They can be divided into two groups: with rectangular shape and round bottom.
The chests have slightly different proportions: their height is equal to the width. Walls, generally rectangular, cover plan is also rectangular, the surface may be flat, and can be made in the form of an arch, the arc of which is located laterally of the trunk.
The surface of wooden boxes and chests more often, in preparation for the application of straw decoration, covered with soil of a dark color which forms the background under the applique. Sometimes masters do not use the ground. The boxes made of Karelian birch (in Belarus it is called the tap-dancing) and of birch and maple growths, very beautiful natural texture. The texture image can be guessed images of grass, flowers, birds, strange beasts, people that will become the basis of established compositions.
Regardless of the type of box, the main surface for application of the decor is a surface of the cap. The composition can be ornamental or narrative in nature.
The trunks, as a rule, the composition of the main decoration is located on two surfaces on the cover surface and the vertical front wall. Often it has a continuous pattern which does not emit structural details of cap: such compositions mimic chest, covered with a patterned carpet.
As an example, consider the procedure for the development and execution of the decoration of the box (figure 4.82 a) in the technique of geometric appliques. Options box 160x100x60 mm rim height of cover of 20 mm. Box
1. Analyze the shape of the box. The box has a rectangular shape, an arched cover surface with a small curvature. Square cover allows you to place on its surface a composition of any type and complexity. The sides have a rectangular shape, a small area will place additional to the main composition of the ceramic, which is developed from elements of the composition of the cover. In order to emphasize the design features of the box, you should allocate small decorative elements her legs.
2. Develop sketches of decor of the main and auxiliary surfaces. To the main surface of the cover, choose ornamental type of composition based on the carpet diagram (figure 4.82 g), which has two axes of symmetry.
a) On graph paper will watertite rectangle, whose dimensions correspond to the real dimensions of the cover when viewed from above. The measurements will take into account the curvature of the sides. It will increase the linear dimension of the width of 10 mm. the size of the drawn rectangle is 160x110 mm (figure 4.82 b).
b) Mark the vertical and horizontal axis of symmetry. That the pattern is not rested on the edge, is indented inwards around the perimeter of the rectangle is 3 mm. will Watertite a rectangle that will become the outer border of the composition with the size 154x104 mm (figure 4.82 b).
3. Determine the size of the border, based on the proportions of surface and the type of the new composition. Try to determine the size of the border so that the size of the Central field was conveniently divided into three parts, following the General scheme of the composition. Set the approximate width of the border in the range of 10-15 mm, the width of the field will lie in the interval 134-124 mm. is Convenient to divide by 3 the number corresponding to the width of the Central field will be equal to 120 mm, border width is 17 mm.
Will watertite a rectangle 120x70 mm (154 - 34 = 120, 104 - 34 = 70). The Central field of the composition is divided into three equal parts, in the first and third parts need additional vertical axis of symmetry, the cell size of the Central field equal 40x70 mm (figure 4.82 b).
4. Develop the composition of the outlet for one cell, which will be repeated in the other two cells (figure 4.82). The socket will have an oval shape. Build the Central part of the socket on the basis of a circle, and then develop the song up and down, giving it an elongated shape (figure 4.82 g).
5. Repeat the ornament in the other two cells. Modify the composition of the field by introducing a small amount of decorative elements between the cells (figure 4.82 d).
6. Separate the Central field from the edges with a thin strip width of 2 mm.
7. Design the ornament border. The composition of the Central field has a well designed ornament, fringe needs to emphasize and support the Central composition. The maximum size of the elements of rapport should correspond to the average dimensions of the elements of the Central composition. As a motive to choose a small compositional element sockets, e.g. of the composition of triangular leaves, stamens, located on the border that separates the sockets from one another (figure 4.82).
a) Determine the amount of repeat edges (figure 4.82 d) on the basis of its overall dimensions and sizes of items. The length of the rim, measured from the inner margins of the box on the larger side equal to 120 mm, on the smaller side — 70 mm border Width is approximately 15 mm. the cell size of the repeat, select equal to 20x15 mm. On the larger side, the rapport is repeated 6 times, at least 4 times.
b) At the corners of the motif-repeat is rotated by 45° and shifted to a corner of the layout. The finished version of the sketch shown in figure 4.82 E.
8. The lateral surface of a boxes complete border similar to the border of the Central field, repeating the repeats in the front and side walls.
9. Work out the color composition. The color of the soil, select dark shades. The color composition of the ornament build on the natural colors of the straw, inserting the orange and green straw, colored dyes. Color it is desirable to emphasize the middle part of the rosettes, the leaves, the rest of the elements are Express in the natural range (figure 4.82 g).
10. Proceed to surface preparation and marking of the decor. Wood surface must be sanded with fine sandpaper, and cover with soil of the selected color (see "Materials").
a) After drying of the soil mark the surface of the lid, using a ruler and a marking gauge. All dimensions move with the sketch. The main markings are the lines defining the boundaries of the border, the Central field axis of symmetry. To properly convey the shape of the sockets, you can designate the diameter of the circles in which they are written. The size of circles you need to take with the sketch and outline on the surface with a compass. Marking edges to produce points that correspond to the centers of rapport.
b) draw a layout of the curbs on the sides similar to the layout edges on the lid.
11. The size and color of straw ribbons determine according to the sketch.
12. The execution of an application start with the Central elements of the outlets, and then follow the petals, leaves and flowers of medium size. Glue the last small details: a narrow strip of straw ribbon with diamonds on the ends and small leaves. The perimeter limit of the Central part of the composition of thatched strips of width 2 mm., the Edging follow the sequence of gluing similar items, starting from the Central diamonds, the position of which is determined by the markup, and then do the leaves and "stamens".
13. In the same sequence do the borders on the sides. The legs of the box glue small pieces of straw ribbon natural color, their shape is chosen accordingly to the shape and size of the legs.
14. After executing the decor, if necessary, remove the traces of markup, if they were not completely hidden by the applique. The easiest way to paint them with soil. All surfaces of the box together with the decor covered with a layer of varnish and dried.
15. The inner surface of the bottom, walls and lid of the box can be applied to the wall or a cloth, covering, varnish.
Requirements for quality products:
the correct marking of the surface.
selection straw in color;
even cut in geometric shapes;
the elimination of burrs on the cuts;
remove pencil marks and varnish.
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